Antigenic shift and drift of influenza virus biology essay

Antigenic drift is a major problem in the design of vaccinations, particularly in influenza a the slight changes in antigen structure mean that previous vaccines are no longer viable and new vaccines are constantly required. Antigenic drift vs antigenic shift process allows influenza viruses to change and re-infect people repeatedly through their lifetime and is the reason the influenza virus strains in vaccine . Antigenic shift is the process by which at least two different strains of a virus (or different viruses), especially influenza, combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two original strains. Biology botany zoology viral mutations, antigenic shift and drift the influenza virus has eight different components to its makeup, which allows for many .

antigenic shift and drift of influenza virus biology essay Influenza results from a virus that infects the upper respiratory  this is also called antigenic shift in type a flu and antigenic drift in type a or b since the .

The concepts of antigenic shift and drift could be found in almost every microbiology and virology syllabus, usually taught in the context of influenza virus biology. Antigenic drift is a term used to describe one of the ways that influenza (flu) viruses change and mutate it describes a minor change in the flu virus when a flu virus mutates or changes slightly, it looks different to our immune system. Antigenic shift and drift influenza type a viruses go through two kinds of changes one is a sequence of mutations that occur over time and causes a slow development of the virus.

There are two general categories of antigenic changes in flu viruses, drifts and shifts drifts are minor antigenic alterations within a major form of influenza virus shifts are drastic changes that result in a new major form drift antigenic drift of viruses within a host: a finite site model with demographic stochasticity. Influenza and antigenic shift whereas antigenic drift affects all strains of influenza, antigenic shift only affects influenza a, as it has a broad range of animal reservoirs. Among the influenza a viruses, both of the surface glycoproteins (the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase) undergo two types of variation: antigenic drift and antigenic shift antigenic drift involves minor changes in the antigenicity of the surface protein and is thought to be responsible for the persistence of the virus in a susceptible population. Antigenic shift and drift article (pdf available) in science teacher (normal, ill) 283(5747) january 2011 with 2,944 reads doi: 101038/283524b0.

Everybody is susceptible to the virus after an antigenic shift, and the novel influenza may thus spread uncontrollably some people may still be immune and some others may be partly immune to the new strain of virus thus leading to a milder illness. The relationship between influenza antigenic drift and vaccination lies at the intersection of evolutionary biology and public health, and it must be viewed and analyzed in both contexts simultaneously. Major changes in the influenza type a ha antigen (antigenic shift) are caused by reassortment from different influenza a subtypes, such as between animal and human subtypes, and in rare events, such shifted viruses can result in strains capable of causing large regional or global pandemic outbreaks.

Antigenic shift and drift of influenza virus biology essay

Antigenic drift and shift is the ability of the influenza a virus to mutate over time producing a different antigen the immune system is unable to counter act the virus, since the new antigen is genetically different and is unable to bind to the immune receptors causing illness. Influenza virus a undergo genetic variation by antigenic shift, and thus, are capable of infecting a large number of host species an antigenic drift is responsible for flu seasons in which a large number of people are suffer from the flu, the outbreak of the h3n2 virus. Differences between antigenic shift and antigenic drift influenza virus are remarkable because of the frequent antigenic change that occurs in ha or na.

Antigenic shift is an abrupt, major change in the influenza a viruses, resulting in new hemagglutinin and/or new hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins in influenza viruses that infect humans. Niaid illustration of potential influenza genetic reassortment antigenic shift is the process by which two or more different strains of a virus , or strains of two or more different viruses, combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two or more original strains.

Antigenic shift is a major antigenic change that occurs when an influenza a virus that bears a novel ha (or novel ha and na) emerges in the human population from: principles and practice of pediatric infectious diseases (fourth edition) , 2012. Influenza virus: the flu, genetic drift & shift, neuraminidase & hemagglutinin influenza virus causes the flu influenza should not be confused with the bacteria haemophilus influenza (aka h flu). Antigenic shift and drift of influenza virus biology essay influenza a virus is known in the worldwide as an ague contagious viral infective disease and respiratory piece of land disease that occur as a consequence of infection. 2) the rapid evolution of type a influenza virus by antigenic shift has serious implications for the human population for example, the type a influenza virus strain h5n1, sometimes found in domestic poultry, rarely infects humans but when infected, avian h5n1 kills about 60% of the infected humans.

antigenic shift and drift of influenza virus biology essay Influenza results from a virus that infects the upper respiratory  this is also called antigenic shift in type a flu and antigenic drift in type a or b since the . antigenic shift and drift of influenza virus biology essay Influenza results from a virus that infects the upper respiratory  this is also called antigenic shift in type a flu and antigenic drift in type a or b since the .
Antigenic shift and drift of influenza virus biology essay
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